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How should 270 million people with hypertension in our country stabilize our blood pressure?
China's recent "Healthy China Initiative (2019-2030)" and the "China Cardiovascular Disease Report 2018" issued by the National Cardiovascular Center show that there are 270 million people with hypertension in China and 18 years of age and above. The prevalence rate is 25.2%, and it is on the rise.
Hypertension is a high risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, which significantly increases the incidence of complications such as stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and end-stage renal disease, which seriously threatens the health of our residents. Experts said that actively preventing and controlling hypertension is the core strategy to curb the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in China. Correct lifestyle intervention can effectively improve the rate of hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. Individuals are the main force in the prevention and control of hypertension.
Preventing and controlling hypertension starts with knowing yourself
Everyone is the first person responsible for their own health. Fan Li, president of the Chinese Society of Geriatrics, proposed that the core of hypertension prevention and control is early prevention, which curbs its damage to the body from the source. This requires everyone to understand hypertension, prevent hypertension through a healthy lifestyle, and control hypertension through standardized treatment.
"The data shows that the increase in the rate of hypertension control directly leads to the rapid decline in the mortality of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. It can be seen that it is the key to let the public know the harm of hypertension and actively control the blood pressure. Zhang Xinhua, chairman of the World Hypertension Alliance, said.
The Healthy China Initiative proposes that by 2022 and 2030, the awareness rate of hypertension among residents aged 30 and over will not be less than 55% and 65%, respectively; the standardized management rate of patients with hypertension will not be less than 60% and 70%; hypertension treatment Rate and control rate continue to increase.
How to judge and know if your blood pressure is healthy? The Healthy China Initiative provides guidance: overweight or obesity, high-salt diets, smoking, long-term alcohol consumption, long-term mental stress, and insufficient physical activity are high-risk groups for hypertension. Adults should pay attention to changes in blood pressure. Those with normal blood pressure should measure their blood pressure at least once a year. High-risk people often take blood pressure. Recommended for those with normal high blood pressure (120-139mmHg / 80-89mmHg)
Pay attention to controlling these risk factors early.
Correct lifestyle interventions give blood pressure "stability"
Self-blood pressure management is the ability that patients with hypertension should have. Experts remind that without using antihypertensive drugs, systolic blood pressure ≥140mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure ≥90mmHg measured 3 times on the same day can be diagnosed as hypertension. Patients with hypertension should take the medicine carefully according to the doctor's advice, and often measure blood pressure and follow up.
According to the National Basic Hypertension Prevention and Management Guide issued by the National Cardiovascular Disease Center, the daily salt intake of each person with hypertension does not exceed 6g, and pay attention to reducing the "hidden salt" in foods such as pickles, chicken essence, and soy sauce. The systolic blood pressure can be reduced by 2-8mmHg; for every 10 kg of weight loss in hypertension patients with excess weight, the systolic blood pressure can be reduced by 5-20mmHg.
According to this guideline, patients with diagnosed hypertension should immediately initiate and long-term adherence to healthy lifestyle interventions: reduce salt and fat intake, exercise moderately, reduce weight, quit smoking and limit alcohol, maintain a peaceful mind, feel happy, and improve Bad lifestyle habits actively control blood pressure.
"A reasonable and healthy diet and antihypertensive drugs go hand in hand." Wang Fang, chief physician of the Department of Cardiology, Beijing Hospital, believes that a reasonable diet is very important for blood pressure control in patients with hypertension and helps reduce the use of antihypertensive drugs and improve the effect of antihypertensive drugs. .
Experts also suggest that patients with hypertension need to achieve three points to develop a good lifestyle: ensure adequate sleep, do not stay up late, avoid strenuous physical or mental activities before going to bed; bring your own blood pressure monitor, measure blood pressure at least once a week and Keep records; take medications as directed by your doctor, and never stop taking them yourself.
Primary medical services escort for patients with hypertension
Improving the rate of hypertension control also needs to ensure that patients receive standardized treatment, so it is important to establish an effective public health prevention and control system. Zhang Yuqing, chief physician of the heart failure intensive care unit of Fuwai Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, said: "The grassroots are the main battlefield for hypertension prevention and control. Grassroots health service personnel should pay attention to the education of hypertension patients, strengthen hypertension screening, and improve the effective detection of hypertension. , While strengthening health education for children and adolescents. "
In recent years, China has continued to promote the prevention and treatment of hypertension at the grassroots level. The "State Council's Opinions on the Implementation of Healthy China" requires that residents be guided to learn and master self-help and mutual rescue knowledge such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation, provide lifestyle guidance to high-risk groups and patients, comprehensively implement the first blood pressure measurement system for people over 35, and strengthen hypertension Standardize management and improve emergency response capabilities such as pre-hospital emergency treatment.
In order to improve the ability of primary medical institutions to prevent and control cardiovascular disease and establish a basic hypertension-based prevention and control system for hypertension, the international professional organizations such as the World Health Organization and the World Hypertension Alliance have developed the HEARTS technology toolkit for governments, experts and grassroots Medical institution staff provides policy and professional guidance.
Zhang Xinhua introduced that since the launch of the HEARTS project in China in 2017, it has covered 18 cities in Henan Province and has played a good role as a model. Beijing, Guangzhou, Xinjiang and other places are also preparing and launching the project.
In addition, experts suggest that hypertension research should be strengthened. "At present, most hypertension research focuses on how to lower blood pressure, but not enough attention to the underlying mechanism of hypertension and risk factors. How to screen for risk factors? How to divide high-risk groups? How to rationally use drugs according to patient characteristics? Greater efforts are made in these areas, "said Han Qide, an expert in basic cardiovascular research and an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.