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How far is it to "return to old age" and how to "live and young"?
Birth, illness, and death are irresistible natural processes. In ancient and modern times, there are countless talented people in the world who hope to find the technique of immortality, but all return without success, not to mention the dream of returning to old age. But in recent days, scientists at the University of California, Los Angeles have used a "cocktail" drug therapy to reverse the biological age of participants by an average of 2.5 years. This makes people rejoice. Can the dream of returning to old age be realized in many years?
Unexpected harvest of thymus regeneration test
The above research was published in the top academic journal "Aging Cell" in the field of biology published in September, and the international scientific journal "Nature" also reported this, which shows its high degree of attention. Previous studies have found that the thymus is an important immune organ in the human body. After white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, they must mature in the thymus, where they become "lethal" T cells, helping the body fight infections and cancer. It can be seen that the thymus-based immune function is well maintained. Therefore, the above researchers combined growth hormone and two widely used anti-diabetic drugs, dehydroepiandrosterone and metformin, to form a "cocktail" therapy, and wanted to verify whether the therapy can be safely achieved through clinical trials. Human Thymus Regeneration and Immune Reconstruction.
Never stop researching "return to old age"
The history books also record people's efforts to seek immortality: Qin Shihuang once sent Xu Fu to lead thousands of boys and girls into the sea in search of elixir; Emperor Hanwu Liu Che and Tang Taizong Li Shimin went to worship immortals for medicine, reused alchemists, and relied on alchemy; There were even emperors who were poisoned or even died of taking elixir containing lead or mercury. According to the "Zizhi Tongjian", in the later years of Tang Taizong, he "did not save the violent illness" because of taking "Hu Seng medicine."
In modern times, while people continue to perform "beautiful fairy tales" relying on film and television and literary works, they have indeed conducted research from a scientific level. For example, in Europe and the United States, vampires are an enduring creative theme, and they can be immortal by smoking blood. As a result, scientists have also studied "vampire therapy." According to Zhao Jianguo, some scientists have tried to connect young mice with old mice to establish a common circulatory system. In the end, not only did old mice not delay aging, but the organ functions of young mice were also damaged. Other scientists have tried to inject the blood of young people into the elderly, and there has been great disagreement and controversy. In February this year, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration officially issued a warning: Disable young people's plasma for infusions because they cannot fight aging and treat diseases.
Liu Guanghui said that aging is the loss of physiological functions with age, leading to increased functional impairment and increased risk of death. In more detail, aging is a complex biological process. From molecular changes, aging of cells, to the structural and functional regression of tissues and organs, to individual aging, it is a multi-factor, multi-dimensional physiological change. process. At present, studies have shown that the main factors that induce aging include: loss of genomic homeostasis, telomere loss, epigenetic changes, protein homeostasis, nutrient sensing disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, stem cell depletion, and changes in intercellular communication.
In terms of aging intervention, international scientific research focuses on the following four categories:
Use drugs to improve cell condition. In 2018, a U.S. research team found that nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors can reduce aging-related inflammation in mice. In the same year, the Mayo Medical Center research team treated the mice with drugs that eliminated senescent cells (dasatinib and quercetin), and found that the removal of senescent cells could improve the physical function of the aged mice and extend their lifespan. Recently, Chinese researchers have used human progeria mesenchymal stem cell models to screen and find that small molecule drugs such as oltipraz, vitamin C and quercetin can delay the aging of human stem cells.
Exercise and calorie restriction. A previous study in the British Journal of Sports Medicine stated that after a person reaches middle age, insisting on aerobic exercise can delay biological aging by 12 years. Research from scientists such as the National Institute of Aging, Julie Mathisson, and others have found that reducing food intake has the effect of delaying aging. In August this year, the international academic journal Cell and its sub-journals published a number of articles reporting the effects of different forms of calorie restriction on the immune system, thereby delaying aging.
Stem cells and gene editing. Stem cells are cells with the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. Because of its unique regenerative function, it has broad application prospects in clinical medical fields such as wound repair, nerve regeneration and delaying aging. A clinical trial of stem cell anti-senile degeneration carried out by the Miller School of Medicine at the University of Miami in the United States has completed Phases I and II, proving that the expression levels of serum inflammatory factors in the test patients are significantly reduced, which can improve aging and debilitating. Recently, a research jointly conducted by the research team of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University has obtained genetically enhanced stem cells for the first time in the laboratory. The gene editing has rewritten 1-2 bases in the genetic code of the human genome and can activate Senescence protection and expression of antitumor genes. Such enhanced stem cells can have dual resistance to cell aging and tumorigenic transformation, and have potential therapeutic effects on aging-related degenerative diseases.
Extend telomere length. Elizabeth Black, a Nobel Prize winner in physiology or medicine, suggested that the length of telomeres at the end of human DNA may reflect the length of life. If you change the speed of telomere shortening, you may extend healthy life and reduce the incidence of aging-related diseases. However, Liu Guanghui said that whether telomere lengthening at the individual level can actually delay aging and whether there are side effects. There are no rigorous clinical trials and scientific reports, so there is still a long way to go.
Zhao Jianguo said that most of the current anti-aging methods remain in the experimental stage of cells and animals, and have not been used clinically. Human understanding of the causes and mechanisms of aging is still nothing. "Aging is related to anti-free radicals, but it is not a one-to-one relationship. To what extent the anti-free radical resistance is appropriate, a lot of research is needed in the future." Fan Zhihong, associate professor at the School of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, added.
How to "live the younger"
Experts agree that with the improvement of nutritional status and lifestyle changes, human life expectancy is continuously increasing, but existing studies have shown that it is still difficult for humans to achieve reverse age growth. Scientists in different fields are only exploring to delay Aging and reducing the incidence of aging-related diseases. Zhao Jianguo said that in the current mechanism of aging, 20% ~ 30% is determined by genes, and 70% ~ 80% is determined by external environment and acquired habits. Instead of changing age by external forces, it is better to start with yourself and use your own strength to Maintain a healthy lifestyle and vitality. The experts gave the following suggestions:
Try to go to bed early. Zhao Jianguo said that biological rhythm disorders will accelerate aging, so work and rest conform to the laws of nature, and working at sunrise and sunset are effective ways to delay aging. Go to bed at 9 am (9 pm and 10 pm), go to sleep at midnight (deep sleep from 11 am to 1 am), you must not stay up late.
Eating balance. Fan Zhihong said: "By adjusting diet and increasing aerobic exercise, it is completely possible to reverse the heart function assessment from 72 to 65." She suggested limiting calorie intake, eating satiety, balanced nutrition, and low oil. Reduce salt and sugar. Some elderly people have poor digestive function. They can make fruits or vegetables into juice or paste, or make it into porridge. In terms of exercise, aerobic exercise can improve cardiopulmonary function and endurance, brisk walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, Tai Chi, etc. are all good choices; anaerobic exercise can enhance bone strength and muscle strength, can practice pull-ups, Lift dumbbells, push-ups, etc.
Not old mentality. Scientists have surveyed people between 50 and 80 years of age and found that many aging people are not aging in biological age, but aging in the sense of psychological and social age. Therefore, even if you are getting older, you must always maintain a passion for life, actively communicate with others, understand and care for others. It should be noted that a mentality does not mean that physical function does not decline. Therefore, some dangerous activities beyond the body's tolerance should be reduced, and some symptoms that should be promptly diagnosed and treated should see a doctor. Better caring for yourself can improve the quality of life.
Finally, experts reminded that some anti-aging methods on the market should be carefully selected. Zhao Jianguo said that many people will delay aging by supplementing vitamin A, vitamin E, etc. In fact, eating more of these fat-soluble vitamins may increase the risk of cancer and osteoporosis. Fan Zhihong reminded that if you want to add antioxidants, you should ask a professional nutrition doctor to make an assessment and operate according to what is missing. Don't be fooled by the advertisement of anti-sugar pills and health products. In short, delaying aging is a health lesson from the inside out, and improving from your own lifestyle is the best choice.