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Chinese and American doctors talk about proper lipid reduction: Eat less fat, eat more magnesium, and exercise for half an hour every day ...
Currently, the global incidence of hyperlipidemia is as high as 40%. In China, three adults have dyslipidemia, and more than 100 million people have hyperlipidemia. Even doctors can sometimes escape high blood fat doom. So, how do doctors lower their blood lipids? Recently, the American "Readers 'Digest" article introduced five foreign doctors' blood lipid reduction recommendations, and domestic experts also made detailed interpretations of this. Experts point out that blood lipids include two components, triglycerides (TG) and cholesterol. Cholesterol is divided into low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The former is the most harmful. Generally speaking, the main goal of hypolipidemic treatment is to lower TG and LDL-C and raise HDL-C. Among them, lifestyle is the first step in lipid-lowering interventions, from dietary to behavioral habits.
1. "Magnesium" food can be a little more. Caroline Dean, MD, of the University of Notre Dame, is an expert on the heart. She believes that magnesium can help statins reduce harmful cholesterol and improve heart health. She explained that when a person lacks magnesium, they are prone to signs of low vitamin D levels, bone loss, poor sleep, convulsions, tremors, constipation, headaches, etc. It can also lead to angina and even a heart attack.
Zhang Haicheng, chief physician of the Department of Cardiology, Peking University People's Hospital, said that magnesium is an indispensable important cation in the human body, and magnesium deficiency is an important factor for some serious arrhythmias and hypertension. Foods that contain more magnesium include beans such as soybeans, black beans, broad beans, and peas; nuts such as pine nuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds, pecans, and sunflower seeds; amaranth, mustard, mushrooms, dried seaweed, star fruit, longan, and so on. Zhang Haicheng suggested: "Especially seaweed, the content of magnesium is very high, known as the 'treasure house of magnesium elements', you may wish to eat more."
2. Make a sugar reduction plan. Excessive sugar in your diet not only causes diabetes but also increases cholesterol. "I stick to a plant-based diet, I eat the right amount of protein, and avoid starch and processed sugar. This not only keeps cholesterol and triglycerides," said Manfred Sandler, a cardiologist with cardiovascular tissue in Atlanta, USA. The level is normal and it helps to lose weight. "
Zhang Haicheng said that too much sugar intake can not only increase blood sugar and cause obesity, but also lead to insulin resistance and convert the remaining sugar in the body into fat. This is "aggravated" for patients with hyperlipidemia, which may easily cause cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. . Therefore, for patients with hyperlipidemia, a glucose reduction program must be started. For example, make your own breakfast, eat fresh fruits, drink boiled water or tea, etc., and eat less sweet drinks, desserts, and overcooked food.
3. High-fiber foods can't be less. Fiber-containing foods can lower LDL cholesterol. For example, Dr. Eliot Blington, chairman of the Utah Lipids Center in the United States, said: "You can eat whole grains, beans, vegetables, fruits, and nuts."
At present, China's per capita dietary fiber intake is 11 grams / day, compared with the recommended amount of 25 grams / day, less than 5% of people who meet the standards. Experts suggest that to get more dietary fiber, you can try the following methods: add cereal to breakfast, eat carrots and brown rice, eat two apples a day, and at least one meal a day contains beans.
4. Refuse to eat a "second serving." "The best way to avoid getting too many calories is not to take a second serving. If you eat too much, it can be difficult to maintain a healthy weight with exercise." Blinton said that this virtually increases cholesterol.
Zhang Haicheng explained that if the meal is fast, the nerve center has no time to feed back the satiety signal to the brain, and it is easy to eat a second serving immediately, especially when the merchant has a "second half price" discount. It is recommended to chew slowly and firmly reject the "cheap" second serving. Excess nutrition, especially high-fat and high-sugar foods, can cause high blood sugar, high blood fat, high blood pressure, and even atherosclerosis.
5. Learn to make a Mediterranean diet. The Mediterranean diet is known as the healthiest dietary pairing on the planet. Its main components are fruits and vegetables, nuts, beans, whole grains, etc. The oil is mainly olive oil, and the meat is mainly fish and poultry.
Zhang Haicheng introduced that the unsaturated fatty acids in olive oil can help reduce cholesterol levels and reduce the incidence of heart diseases such as coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction. Fish are rich in omega 3 fatty acids, which can increase beneficial high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduce inflammatory reactions in blood vessels, and reduce the risk of heart disease, cancer and arthritis.
1. Exercise for two and a half hours. "I encourage patients to walk two miles (about 3200 meters) in 45 minutes," said Dr. Howard, director of the Department of Cardiology at Drexel University School of Medicine in the United States. He recommends aerobic exercise for at least two and a half hours per week Can reduce blood lipids very well.
Zhang Haicheng said that maintaining aerobic exercise can prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. It is recommended to exercise at least five times a week for at least 30 minutes each time, or to walk 3,000 meters at a slight sweating speed daily; elderly patients can usually perform aerobic exercises such as Tai Chi and dancing, and young patients can do some competitive sports , Such as playing, lasting more than 20 minutes each time.
2. Just quit smoking is good. "Even if you smoke a cigarette a day, you increase the risk of heart disease and stroke. Smoking reduces high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increases the risk of coronary artery disease. If the blood lipids were high, smoking would damage the arteries," Blinton said. The endothelium of blood vessels is prone to atherosclerosis and narrowing of blood vessels, leading to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. "
Epidemiological studies have found that total cholesterol levels in smokers are 10% to 15% higher than in nonsmokers. The medical profession recognizes that smoking as a major risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis is reversible. Stop smoking and the risk decreases rapidly. Quitting smoking for one year can reduce the risk by 50%, even similar to non-smokers.
3. Ensure adequate sleep. "Insufficient sleep is a common cause of heart disease and stroke. If you don't sleep well, be sure to talk to your doctor about how to solve this problem," Blinton said.
Zhang Haicheng said that adequate sleep is important for patients with hyperlipidemia. To ensure high-quality sleep, it is recommended that: bedding should be clean and comfortable. Avoid playing games and watching film and television works 1 hour before bedtime; warm showers can help you fall asleep; eat less before bedtime, especially those with high blood lipids. 2 hours before bedtime Do n’t eat and try to reduce the burden on the body ’s organs, but excessive hunger can also cause you to wake up in the middle of the night and affect the quality of life. You can eat low-calorie foods such as cucumbers and tomatoes before bedtime; Consume a lot of bedtime.
4. Control triglycerides. Bindia Gandy, a doctor of general and functional medicine at the University of Atlanta in the United States, said that oral contraceptives, hypothyroidism and other diseases will also increase total cholesterol levels, and triglyceride levels should be checked even when cholesterol is in the normal range.
Zhang Haicheng said that hyperlipidemia in foreigners is mainly caused by elevated cholesterol, so Gandi suggested that pay attention to triglyceride levels while controlling cholesterol. However, for Chinese people, hyperlipidemia is mainly caused by increased triglycerides, which are greatly affected by diet and exercise. Such patients can first control diet and exercise more to improve metabolism, and then check again after 3 months. Cardiologists do not require patients with triglycerides as strictly as cholesterol. Only after dietary exercise control and triglyceride levels are still significantly increased, will medical treatment be considered. Of course, too high triglyceride levels can cause pancreatitis and should be taken seriously.
5. Choose the right lipid-lowering drug. "The statins vary in cost, effectiveness, and side effects. When it comes to taking these cholesterol-lowering drugs, it's important to choose the right one," says Blinton.
Xu Dingli, a professor of cardiology at the Southern Hospital of Southern Medical University, reminded: "In order to avoid adverse reactions, large doses should not be used in principle; when the drug is used in combination, care should be taken to select drugs and perform drug intervention under the guidance of a doctor, even if there is some abnormal blood lipids. It should not be stopped at will. "Chinese people often cannot tolerate high-dose statins recommended by foreign guidelines, and there are more cases of complications such as muscle lysis and liver damage than abroad, so it is impossible to increase the dose at will. Zhang Haicheng said that not all high blood lipids need to take medicine, and even taking medicine can not do without a good lifestyle. There must be relative indications for taking statins. There are many commonly used lipid-lowering drugs such as statins and fibrates. To reduce cholesterol, statins are required. The best effect is to eat at night because cholesterol metabolism is mainly at night; triglycerides are mainly used in fibrates. Best because triglyceride metabolism is most vigorous during the day.
1. Know your family history. "We often forget the effects of genes on cholesterol, especially those who strictly follow a good lifestyle but still have abnormal cholesterol levels," Gandy said.
Zhang Haicheng pointed out that it is important to understand family genetic factors. Clinical findings found that some patients had a genetic history of hyperlipidemia. As a high-risk population, it is important to screen as soon as possible for genetic mutations. If you have been diagnosed with hyperlipidemia, it is also helpful to know if there is such a disease in the family, which is helpful for accurate treatment.
2. Learn to decompress yourself. "Even if cholesterol is well controlled, stress can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke." Blington said that 50% to 80% of diseases are caused by bad mood, and learning to self-depress can be healthier body.
Zhang Haicheng said that stress can trigger an adrenaline-triglyceride reaction and increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Patients with hyperlipidemia should take time out for 5 minutes when they are busy, or relax outdoors and do some meditation exercises and yoga exercises. In terms of work and life, set realistic goals, vent pressure appropriately, arrange work and life reasonably, and give yourself more time for rest and entertainment. When you are overwhelmed with psychological stress, you can moderately avoid or seek help from others.
3. Spiritual motivation is important. There is motivation only when there is a goal, and spiritual encouragement will strengthen the determination and perseverance of lowering blood fat. "Every morning you wake up with a positive mood and think about the people or things that keep you motivated, which can help with treatment," says Blinton.
Zhang Haicheng said that to lower blood lipids, "hold your mouth and spread your legs", perseverance and patience are essential. Although the process is difficult, thinking about the happy life brought by health can offset the current "treatment inertia". In order to improve the compliance of blood lipid management, patients can write a health diary and record daily changes in indicators, so that they can feel progress and facilitate long-term adherence.
4. Good doctor-patient communication. "Find a doctor that makes you feel comfortable and trusted, and let him know you slowly. This relationship is good for communication and helps you manage cholesterol for the long term," says Blinton.
Good doctor-patient relationship is based on respect and trust. Zhang Haicheng suggested that when communicating with doctors, patients should truthfully report their illness and medication to facilitate more accurate treatment. During the treatment, patients should follow the doctor's advice and do not change the treatment plan at will. Patients should also follow up regularly to check relevant indicators. Observe physical changes and maintain regular communication with your doctor.
(According to "Life Times")